The head of a gruesome yet colorful worm projects from the seafloor.

To not toot my very own horn, however I do know a factor or two about weird animals. And I can inform you and not using a trace of doubt that the bobbit worm is by far essentially the most weird. Rising to 10 toes lengthy, the worm digs a burrow within the seafloor, leaving solely its bear lure of a mouth protruding. When a fish approaches, the bobbit worm shoots out of its burrow with astonishing pace, snapping its jaws round its prey. With violent tugs, the worm then drags the sufferer down into its lair, the place it eats the fish alive. (Oh, there’s video.)


Now scientists say they’ve discovered proof that an ancestor of the bobbit worm might have been menacing fish 20 million years in the past. Writing right this moment within the journal Scientific Experiences, the researchers argue that a whole bunch of fossilized worm burrows, present in what’s now Taiwan, present telltale indicators of wrestle. They have not discovered the worms themselves, thoughts you, as boneless critters like worms (often known as invertebrates, as a result of they lack spinal columns) very hardly ever fossilize. As a substitute, they found hint fossils, geological options that trace on the habits of historical animals, in sandstone that was as soon as a seafloor.

“That is, we imagine, the primary time that we have really discovered a hint fossil that exhibits how invertebrates like worms have been feeding on vertebrates,” says Nationwide Taiwan College sedimentologist Ludvig Löwemark, co-author of the brand new paper. “As a result of, usually, what we discover within the sedimentary document is animals which might be shifting by the sediment.” Invertebrates, as an illustration, may dig tunnels by the ocean backside and pump water by their burrows, filtering out particles. “However it is a document of a way more lively habits,” he continues. “The worms have been really hiding within the sediment, leaping out, catching their prey, after which dragging this prey down into the sediment.”

The sandstone formation in Taiwan, where giant worms once hunted.
Enlarge / The sandstone formation in Taiwan, the place large worms as soon as hunted.

Ludvig Löwemark

The fossilized burrows are round 6.5 toes lengthy. From their openings on the floor of the seafloor, they’d have run roughly straight down into the muck. Then, midway down, they’d bend at about 45 levels, creating the form of an L, or a boomerang. Close to the entrances of the tunnels, Löwemark and his colleagues observed “collapse funnels,” or piles of sediment that had constructed up contained in the burrow. The researchers argue that it is a signal of wrestle, preserved for tens of millions of years within the fossil document: as a worm dragged a wriggling fish down into its lair, sediment would spill in to fill the void.

A cross-section of a burrow is formed a bit like a feather, with the principle channel being the shaft, and the collapse funnels branching off within the sediment on both sides. The researchers argue that it is a hallmark of the worms’ feeding habits. “When the worm has digested its prey, it reemerges on the floor,” says Löwemark. “It reestablishes a tunnel system in the course of these collapse constructions, and that is how these feather-like constructions across the tube are fashioned.”

If you look closely, you can see the faint fluffy lines of the feather-like structures.
Enlarge / For those who look intently, you may see the faint fluffy traces of the feather-like constructions.

Ludvig Löwemark

Now, bobbit worms and their ancestors aren’t the one critters on the market digging burrows within the seafloor. Some sorts of shrimps and bivalves (shelled mollusks like clams) do the identical. So how may the researchers make sure they have been the truth is excavating a worm’s house?

Shrimp are, nicely, shrimpy, but nonetheless able to digging prolonged tunnels. However as a result of they’re working with sand grains that do not usually stick collectively, they’ve to bolster the partitions of their burrows with mud to maintain them from collapsing. Shrimp tunnels additionally are usually mazelike, and the animals will construct chambers to make use of as roundabouts to allow them to reverse route. As for bivalves, their burrows are often oval-shaped, since their physique plan is 2 shells caught collectively.

These 20-million-year-old burrows, however, are neatly round. This tells the scientists that their residents have been most likely spherical, as fashionable bobbit worms are. The researchers also can inform that these burrows lacked reinforcement, which means that no matter lived in them as a substitute supported the constructions with their our bodies to maintain them from collapsing. Provided that the burrows are greater than 6 toes lengthy, which means we could possibly be coping with one large worm.

Or, extra precisely, the unlucky fish of the distant previous may have been coping with one large worm. “The truth that now we have a really good, spherical form all the way in which down, however with none sturdy lining, means that the animal was really sitting in its burrow system more often than not, after which it rushed out,” says Löwemark. “And the collapse funnels—these feathers on the high—they then characterize the wrestle of the prey as it’s being drawn down into the sediment.”

A view looking down into the trace fossil of a burrow.
Enlarge / A view wanting down into the hint fossil of a burrow.

Ludvig Löwemark

Such hint fossils thus protect proof of an historical wrestle between uber-predator and prey, the researchers argue. This provides scientists a greater thought of how lengthy the bobbit worm and its ancestors have been ruining the lives of fish and offers clues {that a} fossilized physique alone may by no means reveal. Even when the comfortable tissues of a worm fossilized as a substitute of rapidly rotting away, a preserved bobbit worm would supply details about morphology however most likely not habits. “By understanding how the interplay between prey and predators labored prior to now, we will get a greater understanding of the paleoecosystem,” says Löwemark.

This fieldwork did not come easy.
Enlarge / This fieldwork didn’t come straightforward.

Ludvig Löwemark

However the lacking morphology is the truth is an issue, says Terrence Gosliner, senior curator of invertebrate zoology on the California Academy of Sciences, who wasn’t concerned within the work. Bobbit worms belong to a category of worms often known as polychaetes, a few of that are vegetarians, and a few of which develop as giant because the predator in query. So it is attainable that the feathering of a burrow is not an indication that the resident had been looking fish, however moderately simply poking its head out to feed on different issues. “I believe anytime a worm retracts, it may depart related sorts of feathering and the collapse constructions that they discuss, from my standpoint,” says Gosliner. “They may nicely be completely proper, however there are many different explanations, too.”

Actually, even the fashionable bobbit worm stays a largely mysterious creature. “No person has ever actually examined what their burrow is, and whether or not it is L-shaped,” says Gosliner. “And so I believe it is a actually attention-grabbing paleontological discover. However in my thoughts, it raises simply as many questions because it does solutions.”

Löwemark notes, nonetheless, that the feather-like constructions of the burrow prolong fairly far vertically, indicating extra of a wild wrestle than peaceable grazing. The surroundings on the time, too, lends clues. “It’s attainable that different worms make related burrows,” Löwemark says, “however we expect that the truth that the burrows in our paper have been present in a shallow marine paleoenvironment, the place any plant materials would have arrived as small fragments, speaks towards a herbivorous worm.”

It is meals for thought, to make certain.

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